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When I found Farquhar’s attestation papers in the Archives, it was obvious that he signed up for duty somewhere in the Niagara Region. With a search on Google, I found that there was a training camp in Niagara-on-the-Lake. The camp occupied the open field next to Old Fort George. This field is called the Commons and is still existent.
In the archives of the Niagara Historical Society, I found photos and information about the training camp.
This area had been used as a military/cadet summer training camp since the 1800s. It was used for this purpose until Camp Borden was built to replace it after the War. On the edge of the field was a stand of trees called Paradise Grove. Hence, the camp was called “Paradise Camp”.
The name “Paradise Camp”, was one of the first inspirations for me to write a story about Farquhar McLennan. I was struck by the irony of the name. The young men were being trained to become cold, efficient, killers in a place called “Paradise”! Where were they going? The were destined for Hell!
There were two ways for Farquhar to travel from Toronto to Niagara-on-the-Lake. One method was by ferry boat, the “Cayuga” for instance, or by rail. There was a steam locomotive that ran to St. Catharines and then he would have to switch to an electric tram to finish the trip to Niagara. The tram traveled right into Niagara-on-the-Lake by way of King St.
The recruits would disembark at the corner of King and Queen Sts. and then would head over to the Commons to sign up. They would be greeted by an eye-popping sight. Bell tents by the thousands! (I think I slept in one of these vintage bell tents when I was in Scouts)
In the summer of 1915, there were twelve battalions in residence at Paradise Camp, so just over 12000 men. Farquhar was enlisted in the 58th Battalion, Central Ontario Regiment, CEF. His battalion number was 451889. The attestation papers indicate that Farquhar had been in the militia at some point. In fact, he had joined the 48th Highlanders while in Toronto.
There were no proper military uniforms available for the recruits, so they wore the uniforms that you see above. The men nicknamed the straw hats; “cow’s breakfast”. I wonder what impression these uniforms made on the young ladies of Niagara. Of course the officers had full gear!
Proper uniforms didn’t arrive until August.
Hint: one recruit has a tiny red arrow above his head.
The battalions trained here at Niagara until the fall. One contingent from the battalions was sent overseas in August, ahead of schedule. The casualties at the Western Front were taking a toll and reinforcements were badly needed. Farquhar wasn’t among that contingent.
More to come in my next Blog.
Grief’s Geography – where the heroes lived. – click here for link
This link will show a map of Toronto and the location of the home (shown with a poppy) of every casualty of the Great War. Look to see if there were any heroes who lived on your street. Enter your postal code. There is a poppy on 175 Boulton Ave., where Farquhar McLennan lived. Thanks to Global News for this site.
OK, pay attention now, so here we are, back to Paradise Camp, in Niagara-on-the-Lake. Some very notable Canadians attended Paradise Camp for officer training before the War. One of them was Vincent Massey, who much later became Governor General of Canada. Another notable was Percival Molson, of beer fame and having a stadium named after him at McGill University. And a third, but not the least was Nobel Prize winner, Fredrick Banting.
In the summer of 1915, when Pte. Farquhar McLennan enlisted, the group of men at Paradise Camp was part of, what was called, the Second Contingent. The men that went overseas at the beginning of the Great War, in the fall of 1914, all expected to be home by Christmas. Nobody foresaw the shape this war would take. Casualties began to mount very quickly and the government realized that more men would need to be recruited. Thus began the Second Contingent.
A battalion consists of roughly 1000 men and officers. In 1915, the camp was attended by the 35th, 36th, 37th, 58th, 74th, 75th, 76th, 81st, 83rd, 84th, 86th Machine-Gun, 92nd, and the Canadian Army Medical Corp (CAMC). There was a total of around 12000 men.
The camp was established with two campuses; one at the Commons and the other one just north of Niagara-on-the-Lake, at Fort Mississauga. The musketry range was on the north campus.
The picture above is of the “overseas draft”. It was becoming very apparent that the men at the Front were falling faster than they were being replaced. Therefore in August of 1915, a draft was conducted at Paradise camp and this group of men were sent overseas ahead of time. If you look closely at the picture, the men are wearing some of their field gear.
A typical day of training would consist of waking up at 4:30 AM, dressing, followed by breakfast at the mess tents. Morning drills would start with parade drills, beginning with the smallest units (sections, platoons) and progressing up to the largest units (company and battalion). The afternoons would be taken up with combat skills, such as, hand to hand combat, bayonet, target practice artillery or signaling. Fridays were reserved for the long 12 mile (approx) route marches. There was a choice of two; either to Queenston Heights or to Port Dalhousie. Saturdays were for sports and leisure and Sunday was for Divine Service and Church Parades. Families would come to visit the men on Sundays.
Sports played a very important role in the training and development of troops. It was encouraged for fitness and teamwork. Battalions and Companies participated in many tournaments for prizes and trophies. Great rivalries developed between the battalions. The uniforms that you see in this picture were donated by the YMCA. The “Y” played a huge role in supplying equipment to the men for these activities. This picture, by the way, is the one that I chose to put on the cover of the book, “Flowers of the Forest – The Pride of Our Land”.
Ontario: The Early Years
Perhaps it was appropriate that in Ontario, the first game of soccer, as we know it today, was played in Toronto between teams representing the Carlton Cricket Club and the Toronto Lacrosse Club. The game was played in 1876, when cricket and lacrosse, along with baseball, dominated Canadian team sports in the summer. It was played on Parliament Street in Toronto, under the laws formed in 1863 in London, England. But the transition from the hybrid forms of football played in Ontario prior to that day and the game we play today was not immediate, and many years passed before Ontario soccer joined the mainstream.
One year after the game played in the Queen City, the first national soccer association, outside of the British Isles, was formed. It was known as the Dominion Football Association. Unfortunately, it was short-lived and had faded away by the time 1881 rolled around. But before then, something far more significant had happened. The Western Football Association was formed in Berlin (now Kitchener) in 1880. “Football”? Yes, the official name for soccer is Association Football, and in the early years, and at least up until World War Two, it was known as that in Canada. Soccer is a colloquialism formed from the second syllable of the word “association.”
The Western Football Association was founded by the great David Forsyth, one of the most influential men in the history of Canadian sport. It operated in all the towns and villages west of Berlin, places you rarely, if ever, hear of today in connection with soccer. But the WFA thrived in the summer months, and was to a certain extent based in schools. One of these was Forsyth’s Berlin High School. Another was just south of Berlin in Galt, where “Tassie’s School,” Galt Collegiate Institute, took to the game like a duck to water. West of Berlin, it was the same with Seaforth Collegiate Institute, and similarly in Clinton and further south in Woodstock and Ingersoll. But small towns also embraced the game, places like Listowel, Brussels, Milverton, Mildmay, Ayr, Plattsville, Aylmer and Atwood.
Aylmer staged the first international soccer game played in Canada in 1888, with Canada playing the United States, and later that same year, a team made up of players from the WFA toured Britain with great success. However, before that time, the WFA had established a relationship with the American Football Association south of the border, and in 1885 and 1886, a team representing the WFA travelled to New Jersey to play. That in turn brought teams from the U.S. to Ontario, and those teams played in Berlin, Galt, Toronto and Seaforth. Later, teams from as far west as Detroit joined the WFA, and the WFA clubs travelled to Chicago and St. Louis.
While the WFA functioned west of Toronto, the Central Football Association operated in Toronto and just east of the city, while the Eastern Football Association was centred in Cornwall. All of this activity eventually led to the founding of the Ontario Association Football League in 1901, with David Forsyth as the guiding light. While it was known as the Association Football League (as were most soccer/football organizations formed in Canada in those days), the term “league” had nothing to do with a league as we think of it today. League in this sense referred to groups working together towards a common goal.
The founding of the OAFL saw the emergence of Galt Football Club as one of Canada’s first great teams. Known in some quarters as “The Galt Porridge Eating Invincibles,” Galt (today a part of the City of Cambridge), dominated the Ontario Cup in 1901, 1902 and 1903, and then won an Olympic Gold Medal at the 1904 Olympic Games held in St. Louis, Missouri.
But one year later, when the Pilgrims, the first English touring team, came to Canada, something rarely mentioned before came to light. Canadian Rules. It seems that over time, teams in Ontario had begun playing to a somewhat different set of rules to those in use elsewhere, at least in Britain. These rules (or to give them their correct name – Laws), permitted more violent play than the laws in use in Britain — laws that allowed for hacking at players’ legs and tripping, while it was quite alright to jump on the back of the player with the ball. The Pilgrims objected. Controversy ensued, but the games seem to have been played at least partly under Canadian Rules. While the Pilgrims were beaten by the Berlin Rangers 2–1, it was the game against Galt that really mattered, a game billed as being “For the Championship of the World.” Played at beautiful Dickson Park on the banks of the Grand River, the game attracted over 3000 spectators and ended in a 3–3 tie.
Four years later saw the beginning of the end for Canadian Rules as a Scot named Tom Robertson fought for and formed the Toronto and District League playing British rules in opposition to the Toronto League, playing Canadian rules. Eventually Robertson prevailed, and the two organizations joined forces. Robertson then went on to become the secretary of the Toronto and District League and then of the Ontario Football Association and finally to help found the Dominion of Canada Football Association, today’s Canadian Soccer Association, in 1912. But soon after that, the clouds of war cast a dark shadow over all of Canada, and led to the deaths of almost an entire generation of young Canadians, many of them soccer players.
( courtesy of, Canadiansoccerhistory.com)
Football is an important theme in the novel, Flowers of the Forest. The theme centres around Pte. Farquhar McLennan’s prodigious football skill. I used a little writer’s license, having him play his games at Ulster Stadium, which wasn’t built until years later. His skill was noticed by others, particularly, a certain Lt. Colonel in the Canadian Expeditionary Forces. We will learn more about him later. Stay tuned.
The imposing man in the picture above is Lt. Col. Harry Genet, OC of the 58th Battalion, CEF. Born in London, England on Feb, 20, 1864, Harry Genet eventually imigrated to Canada and settled in Brantford, Ontario, where he found work at the Adams Wagon Works as an accountant. Genet also found time to become the Commanding Officer of the 38th Dufferin Peel Rifles.
The Ministry of Militia ordered a battalion to be raised in the central Ontario region in May, 1915. By July, 1151 men had been recruited and were at Paradise Camp, Niagara-on-the-Lake. Lt.Col. Genet took on the mission of recruiting the officers for the battalion.
In the novel, Flowers of the Forest, Lt. Col. Genet and our football prodigy, Pte. Farquhar McLennan, come face to face at Paradise Camp. This is the start of a very complicated relationship that carries over to the Front in Belgium. I don’t want to give away too much here; I’ll let you read about it.
Genet suffered a war injury (sort of) when he was thrown from his horse in High Park, Toronto. He was treated for broken ribs and a separated shoulder. After a spell in Toronto, stationed at the CNE, the 58th moved to England in November, 1915. In Jan., 1916, they moved across the Channel to France. The next stop was the Ypres Salient, in Belgium.
In June, 1916, the Germans mounted an advance that pushed the Canadians out of an area called Sanctuary Wood. It was a bloody, embarrassing loss for the CEF. On June 13, 1916, the Canadians, with the 58th Battalion, attacked the German positions in Sanctuary Wood, pushed them back, and regained their old lines. This was a historic event for Canada. This was the first time a Canadian fighting unit had conducted an offensive mission in the theatre of war.
Only a short time later, Lt. Col. Harry Genet won the DSO (Distinguished Service Award) in a battle at Observatory Ridge. He also received further commendations during his service at the Front. Genet led the 58th at the Battle of the Somme, Vimy Ridge, Lens and Passchendaele. After Passchendaele, Genet left the 58th and the Front.
from a multiplicity of wounds.
Harry Genet eventually returned to England and took up residence in Mervstham. His life came to an end on March 17, 1946. We shall remember.
On a completely different note. This post came up on Facebook yesterday to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death in action of this soldier.
On the 25th March, 1918, Walter Tull was killed by machine gun fire while trying to help his men withdraw.
Second Lieutenant Walter Tull was the first black British Army Infantry officer.
Walter Tull, the son of a joiner, was born in Folkestone on the 28th April 1888. Walter’s father, the son of a slave, had arrived from Barbados in 1876. In 1895, when Walter was seven, his mother died. Walter’s father remarried but he died two years later. The stepmother was unable to cope with all six children and Walter and his brother Edward were sent to a Methodist run orphanage in Bethnal Green, London.
Walter was a keen footballer and played for a local team in Clapton. In 1908 Walter’s talents were discovered by a scout from Tottenham Hotspur and the club decided to sign this promising young footballer. He played for Tottenham until 1910, when he was transferred for a large fee to Northampton Town. Walter was the first black outfield player to play professional football in Britain.
When the First World War broke out, Walter abandoned his football career to join the 17th (1st Football) Battalion of the Middlesex Regiment.
During his military training Walter was promoted three times. In November 1914, as Lance Sergeant he was sent to Les Ciseaux in France. In May, 1915 Walter was sent home with post traumatic stress disorder.
Returning to France in September 1916 Walter fought in the Battle of the Somme, between October and November, 1916. His courage and abilities encouraged his superior officers to recommend him as an officer. On 26 December, 1916, Walter went back to England on Leave and to train as an officer.
There were military laws forbidding ‘any negro or person of colour’ being commissioned as an officer, despite this, Walter was promoted to lieutenant in 1917.
Walter was the first ever Black officer in the British Army Infantry, and the first black officer to lead white men into battle.
Walter was sent to the Italian Front where he twice led his Company across the River Piave on a raid and both times brought all of his troops back safely. He was mentioned in Despatches for his ‘gallantry and coolness’ under fire by his commanding officer.
He was recommended for the Military Cross but never received it.
After their time in Italy, Walter’s Battalion was transferred to the Somme Valley in France. On the 25th March, 1918, Walter Tull was killed by machine gun fire while trying to help his men withdraw.
Walter was such a popular man that several of his men risked their own lives in an attempt to retrieve his body under heavy fire but they were unsuccessful due to the enemy soldiers advance. Walter’s body was never found and he is one of thousands of soldiers from World War One who has no known grave.
(courtesy ww1 Colourized Photos)